Bibliographische Angaben zur Publikation
Rural/urban differences in vocational outcomes for state vocational rehabilitation clients with TBI
Johnstone, Brick; Price, T.; Bounds, T. [u. a.]
American Society of Neurorehabilitation
NeuroRehabilitation, 2003, Volume 18 (Number 3), Seite 197-203, Amsterdam: IOS Press, ISSN: 1053-8135 (Print); 1878-6448 (Online)
To evaluate differences in demographics, injury severity, and vocational outcomes for persons with TBI based on rural vs. urban residency.
78 individuals with TBI (28 from rural counties, 50 from urban counties) who requested services from the Missouri Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (VR
) over a two year period.
Demographics (i.e., age, race, education), injury severity (i.e., loss of consciousness, post traumatic amnesia, length of hospitalization, neuropsychological test scores), VR
services provided (e. g., transportation, maintenance, on-the-job training, etc.
), and VR
outcomes (successfully vs. unsuccessfully employed; cost per case).
All participants completed a standard neuropsychological evaluation and completed VR
services (i. e. , were followed from enrollment to case closure). Rural and urban residency was determined using U.S Office of Management and Budget definitions of metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas.
Chi-squares, Fisher's Exact tests, Wilcoxon Rank Sums test, and MANOVAs.
Few if any differences were found between the groups in demographics (i.e., more African Americans in urban areas), injury severity (i.e., more rural residents with multiple TBIs), or neuropsychological test scores. However, individuals from urban areas received significantly more maintenance funds (46 % vs. 21 %), transportation services (36 % vs. 11%), and on-the-job training (28 % vs. 7 %), and had more spent on them (1, 816 vs 1,242). Although statistically non-significant (p < 0.15), 24 % of individuals from urban areas were successfully employed at VR
case closure, compared to only 7 % of individuals from rural areas.
Individuals with TBI from rural and urban settings have generally similar demographic, injury severity, and neuropsychological abilities, although they appear to differ in terms of vocational outcomes and number of VR
services received, possibly related to limited availability of resources in rural areas.
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